What Are Friends For?: Surveying the Impact of Social Networks on West African Female Immigrant Livelihood in the United States

Carlyn A. James

Unlike the hustle and bustle on New York streets appearing loosely around 8AM each morning, the Ghanaian workday starts promptly at sunrise. Urban traders, market consumers, and everyone in between meander the streets of Accra, Ghana ready to make transactions. In West Africa, women play a key participatory role in urban market activities. They act as traders, producers, consumers, entrepreneurs, financiers, and much more. It became clear in my interaction with West Africans and in my library-based research that finances were not typically shared between working married couples….

Download PDF –  James 2011


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